As training of each horse progresses from the initial basics, several elements become stepping stones.  Some horses are naturally balanced and some are not.  In those who are not, I encourage balance through the use of my seat and legs, as well as gymnastic exercises for the horse.  This begins to develop straightness, rhythm and self-carriage.  Impulsion is forward motion without resistance by engagement of the horse’s hindquarters.  This creates the appearance and feel of forward and upward motion.  I strive to create engaged horses in the early stages of their training by having each horse be light and responsive to the seat and leg aids.  Flexion and lateral work also are implemented within the training process.  All of these elements of training are building blocks toward your supple, collected horse.